Quantum systems can have very different properties from their classical analogues which allows them to have states that are not only correlated but entangled. This allows for quantum computers running algorithms more powerful than those on classical computers (represented by Turing machines) and for quantum cryptography whose safety is (in principle) guaranteed by the laws of nature. I will explain key facts of quantum information theory from a physics perspective. In particular, I will focus on the fundamental difference between the quantum world and the classical world of everyday experience that in particular makes it provable impossible to simulate a quantum world by a classical world. This will then be applied to information processing tasks like quantum computing, quantum cryptography and possibly the human brain. No background in theoretical physics is necessary but some familiarity with basic complexity theory and linear algebra (what is a vector? what is a matrix?) could be helpful.
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